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雙頭數控車床對刀的方法和技巧的說明
更新時間:2017-09-21 點擊次數:4116

通常,我(wo)們用雙頭數(shu)(shu)控(kong)車(che)(che)床(chuang)對某(mou)一零(ling)件(jian)(jian)進行(xing)(xing)數(shu)(shu)控(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)。首(shou)先是(shi)數(shu)(shu)控(kong)編(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)人員(yuan)對零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)設計(ji)圖紙進行(xing)(xing)分析,確定加(jia)工(gong)(gong)方(fang)案,然后(hou)選(xuan)取工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)上(shang)(shang)一點(dian)作為坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)原點(dian)進行(xing)(xing)編(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng),我(wo)們稱(cheng)(cheng)之(zhi)為程(cheng)(cheng)序坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)和(he)程(cheng)(cheng)序原點(dian)。該(gai)點(dian)的(de)確定原則(ze)為容易確定和(he)方(fang)便編(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)計(ji)算,一般與(yu)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)工(gong)(gong)藝基(ji)準(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)或設計(ji)基(ji)準(zhun)(zhun)(zhun)重合,因(yin)此也被稱(cheng)(cheng)作工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)原點(dian),以(yi)(yi)此建立(li)(li)的(de)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)也稱(cheng)(cheng)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)。數(shu)(shu)控(kong)編(bian)(bian)(bian)程(cheng)(cheng)是(shi)以(yi)(yi)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)為基(ji)礎進行(xing)(xing)的(de),而零(ling)件(jian)(jian)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)是(shi)在數(shu)(shu)控(kong)車(che)(che)床(chuang)上(shang)(shang)進行(xing)(xing)的(de)。數(shu)(shu)控(kong)車(che)(che)床(chuang)通電后(hou),如果(guo)系(xi)(xi)統檢測元(yuan)件(jian)(jian)采用增量(liang)(liang)編(bian)(bian)(bian)碼器時(shi)(shi),必須進行(xing)(xing)手動(dong)(dong)返(fan)回參考(kao)點(dian),其目的(de)是(shi)建立(li)(li)數(shu)(shu)控(kong)車(che)(che)床(chuang)進行(xing)(xing)位置(zhi)測量(liang)(liang)、控(kong)制、顯示(shi)的(de)統一基(ji)準(zhun)(zhun)(zhun),以(yi)(yi)建立(li)(li)機床(chuang)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)。如果(guo)系(xi)(xi)統檢測元(yuan)件(jian)(jian)采用編(bian)(bian)(bian)碼器時(shi)(shi),數(shu)(shu)控(kong)車(che)(che)床(chuang)通電后(hou)機床(chuang)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)同時(shi)(shi)建立(li)(li),不需(xu)要(yao)進行(xing)(xing)手動(dong)(dong)返(fan)回參考(kao)點(dian)操作。現在我(wo)們可以(yi)(yi)知(zhi)道工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)與(yu)機床(chuang)坐(zuo)標(biao)系(xi)(xi)二者(zhe)沒有任何,為了將二者(zhe)起來,我(wo)們就要(yao)進行(xing)(xing)對刀(dao)操作。

對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)一(yi)般可分為手(shou)動(dong)(dong)對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)和(he)自(zi)動(dong)(dong)對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao),目(mu)前(qian),絕(jue)大(da)多數雙頭數控(kong)車(che)都采用(yong)(yong)手(shou)動(dong)(dong)對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)。其中手(shou)動(dong)(dong)對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)又分四種方法(fa):定(ding)位對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)法(fa)、光學對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)法(fa)、ATC對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)法(fa)、試(shi)(shi)切對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)法(fa),但無論采用(yong)(yong)哪種對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)方式(shi),皆因手(shou)動(dong)(dong)和(he)目(mu)測等誤差,對(dui)(dui)(dui)刀(dao)精度有限(xian),zui終還(huan)要(yao)通過(guo)試(shi)(shi)切加以修正。

在(zai)日常(chang)生(sheng)產中,我們通常(chang)將上面對刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)過程調整為(wei)工件(jian)(jian)和刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具裝夾完畢,先測(ce)量(liang)工件(jian)(jian)直(zhi)徑得到數(shu)值(zhi)X1,然后旋轉主軸,移動刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)尖至剛(gang)才測(ce)量(liang)處,在(zai)刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具參數(shu)中刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)具補償、形狀相應的的補償號中輸入X1+0.2,Z方向對刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)方式不變,然后運行程序加工,因(yin)為(wei)對刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)過程中放大(da)了測(ce)量(liang)尺寸(cun),所以zui終(zhong)零件(jian)(jian)尺寸(cun)也會被放大(da),用千分尺測(ce)量(liang)零件(jian)(jian),得到直(zhi)徑X2,用X2減零件(jian)(jian)標注尺寸(cun)(有公差(cha)要求的取(qu)公差(cha)中間值(zhi)),將得到的差(cha)值(zhi)通過“+輸入”方式補償到對應補償號中,這種方法對刀(dao)(dao)(dao)(dao)既有效(xiao)率又準確。

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